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Adult Sugarcane Beetle

Sugarcane Beetle Numbers Increasing

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Over the past three nights Dr. David Kerns has collected 2000+ sugarcane beetles in a black trap on the Macon Ridge Research Station. These large flights of beetles are most likely brought on by the warm temperatures Louisiana has been experiencing the past week.

Adult beetles are the damaging stage of this pest and are dull black and about an inch in length. The sugarcane beetle has strong forelegs and spines adapted for digging allowing for rapid penetration of the soil surface once they have reached a suitable host. Adult feeding occurs below the soil surface and seedling corn suffers the most

Sugarcane Beetle Damage
Sugarcane Beetle Damage to Corn(Photo by A. Catchot)

damage, but corn is susceptible up to 24-inches. This insect is primarily a pest of corn but damage to rice, sweet potatoes and sugarcane can occur throughout the growing season. The immature stage or grubs feed on the roots of grasses in fields often surrounding production corn fields. Therefore, crops adjoining sod fields are most often at greater risk for injury from adult beetles.

Adult Sugarcane Beetle
Adult Sugarcane Beetle (Photo by N. Hummel)

The developmental cycle of sugarcane beetles takes about 80 days in Louisiana. Constant flights of adults typically occur in March or April with diapause occurring in October.

Seedling corn with stagnant growth due to cold weather or other factors is most susceptible to sugarcane beetle injury. High rates of neonicotinoid insecticide seed treatments will usually provide adequate protection from sugarcane beetles for 14 – 21 days after planting. Research trials have shown that Poncho appears to be more active than Cruiser. However, with the large amount of rainfall and the time elapsed since planting, even higher rates of neonicotinoid seed treatments may not provide adequate protection from these insects. Rescue treatments with pyrethroids can be unreliable due the short residual control they offer and the fact that sugarcane beetle flights are sporadic and unpredictable. Additionally, getting insecticide to the insect is difficult since they tunnel into the soil and feed below ground.

For more information or if you have any questions or concerns please contact Sebe Brown, or Drs. David Kerns or Julien Beuzelin.

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns   Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin  Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

Corn Seed Treatments

Corn Insecticide Seed Treatment Wash Off

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With many parts of Louisiana experiencing significant rainfall events in the past week and corn planting in full swing, some insecticide seed treatments may have been adversely affected by the excess moisture.  Insecticide seed treatments (ISTs) are neonicotinoid based insecticides that coat the outer layer of the seed offering protection from below and above ground early season insect pests. The systemic nature of ISTs make these compounds water soluble and facilitate the vascular movement of the insecticide into the plant tissue.  Adequate moisture is required to move the insecticide into the root zone and available for plant uptake.

Corn Seed Treatments
Corn Seed Treatments

However, excess moisture may move the insecticide out of the root zone. Of the three neonicotinoid insecticides available for use on corn seed, thiamethoxam is the most water soluble at 4.1 g/l of water, followed by imidacloprid and clothianidin at 0.5 and 0.33 g/l, respectively.  These values represent the degree of leachability but are highly dependent on soil type.  Movement below and around the root zone may increase  below ground control of insects such as wireworms, rootworms, and sugarcane beetles ; however, the dilution may limit root uptake and the amount of above ground protection offered.  This can leave plants more susceptible to injury from chinch bugs, false chinch bugs, stink bugs and bill bugs.

Under ideal conditions, corn ISTs will give 14 to 18 days of protection from above ground pests.  Fields under excess moisture, for extended periods of time, should be scouted routinely for damage after emergence.  If immature and adult insects, such as chinch bugs, are found to be feeding on early corn it is often a sign that the IST may have lost its efficacy.

For more information or if you have any questions or concerns please contact Sebe Brown, or Drs. David Kerns or Julien Beuzelin.

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns   Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin  Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

 

Refuge Requirements for Field Corn

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With the corn growing season rapidly approaching, many producers are faced with the task of deciphering what refuge their chosen variety or varieties require.  First, many of the varieties available have Bt genes solely for control of western corn rootworm. Western corn rootworm is rarely a problem in Louisiana and varieties containing this gene will not control the predominate species of Southern corn rootworm our producers face every year.  However, varieties containing the corn rootworm trait require a specific in-field or adjacent refuge instead of the ½ mile refuge Louisiana producers are familiar with.

Below is a link to a list of corn varieties, their refuge requirements, and target pests from Mississippi State. Mississippi is considered a cotton growing area and the refuge requirements, including the corn rootworm trait, are the same for Louisiana.

http://www.mississippi-crops.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/P2471_p471.pdf

*Beware that any variety that specifies corn rootworm control must have a refuge in the same field or adjacent to the Bt corn. If the variety does not specify corn rootworm, as a target pest, then the refuge can be a ½ mile distance from the Bt corn.

For more information or if you have any questions or concerns please contact Sebe Brown, or Drs. David Kerns or Julien Beuzelin.

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns  Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

Sorghum Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Intervals

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Sorghum Insecticide Formulation, Rate and PHI
Sorghum Insecticide Formulation, Rate and PHI

Beware, generics were not included in the above list, rates and formulations may be different. 

Pre-harvest intervals are given for sorghum harvested for grain not for forage. Harvest intervals may be different for sorghum used as forage.

** Lorsban 4E: Do not harvest for grain, forage, fodder, hay or silage within 30 days after application of 1 pint of Lorsban 4E per acre or within 60 days after application of rates above 1 pint per acre.

If you have any questions or concerns please contact:

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns  Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

Cotton Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Intervals

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Cotton Insecticide Formulation, Rate and PHI
Cotton Insecticide Formulation, Rate and PHI

Beware, generics were not included in the above list, rates and formulations may be different. 

(**) Curacron 8E: Do not apply Curacron 8E within 14 days of harvest when application is made in a water carrier or within 30 days of harvest when application is made in an oil carrier. 

If you have any questions or concerns please contact:

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns  Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

 

Soybean Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Intervals

Soybean Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Intervals published on 2 Comments on Soybean Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Intervals
Soybean Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Interval
Soybean Insecticide Formulation, Rate and Pre-harvest Interval

Beware, generics were not included in the above list, rates and formulations may be different. 

If you have any questions or concerns please contact:

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. Jeff Davis  Cell: 225-747-0351    Office: 225-578-5618

Dr. David Kerns  Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

Redbanded stink bug nymph

Soybean Loopers and Redbanded Stink bugs in Soybeans

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Lately I have been receiving more calls about soybean loopers and redbanded stink bugs in late soybeans. Soybean loopers are late season pests that usually do not arrive in large numbers until August. These defoliating insects are often intensified by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides for control of three-cornered alfalfa hoppers and redbanded stink bugs. These applications effectively sterilize soybean fields; this often includes natural enemies which can keep soybean looper populations in check.  The threshold for soybean loopers in Louisiana soybeans is 8 worms ½ inch or longer per row foot or 150 worms in 100 sweeps.

Soybean looper immature
Soybean Looper: Photo by LSU AgCenter

Soybean loopers have developed resistance to many insecticide chemistries and effective control measures are primarily limited to lepidopteran specific insecticides. However, the LSU AgCenter Soybean Entomology Lab (under the direction of Dr. Jeff Davis) has documented soybean looper insecticide resistance to methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F) in areas of North and South Louisiana. Rates of Intrepid below 6 oz/acre and prophylactic applications, with a fungicide, before the presence of loopers are not recommended. Belt (2-3 oz/acre) and Steward (5.6-11.3 oz/acre) are effective in controlling soybean looper populations with Belt providing residual efficacy of 14 days or more depending on application volume and rate.

Redbanded stink bugs have become the dominant stink bugs species in Louisiana

Redbanded stink bug adult
Redbanded Stink bug Adult: Photo by LSU AgCenter

soybeans. Redbanded stink bugs are part of a complex of pod feeders that feed directly on soybean seeds reducing seed size, quality and yield. This pest is more difficult to control than other stink bug species often requiring 3-5 insecticide applications. Pyrethroid efficacy against redbanded stink bugs has declined in recent years resulting in the use of tank mixes and premix applications. The threshold for redbanded stink bugs in Louisiana soybeans is 24 bugs in 100 sweeps. Endigo and Leverage 360 have demonstrated satisfactory control of redbanded stink bugs as well as tank mixes of acephate plus a pyrethroid. Beware only 1.5 lbs of acephate can be applied per crop per season for soybeans. Redbanded stink bugs are strong fliers and re-colonization after an insecticide treatment may occur quickly.

Redbanded stink bug nymph
Redbanded Stink bug Nymph: Photo by LSU AgCenter

Routine scouting is required for both of these insects in soybeans. The flighty nature of redbanded stink bugs and large populations of soybean loopers can result in significant yield losses if populations are allowed to increase unchecked.

For more information or if you have any questions or concerns please contact Sebe Brown, or Drs. Jeff Davis, David Kerns or Julien Beuzelin.

Sebe Brown   Cell: 318-498-1283   Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. Jeff Davis  Cell: 225-747-0351    Office: 225-578-5618

Dr. David Kerns  Cell: 318-439-4844    Office: 318-435-2157

Dr. Julien Beuzelin Cell: 337-501-7087  Office: 318-473-6523

ULV Malathion

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I have been receiving more calls about ULV malathion and its use on cotton. Outlined below are the rules regarding the use of ULV malathion and application intervals outlined by the LDAF.

Courtesy of Bobby Simoneaux:

An ultra-low volume (ULV) malathion and a ULV pyrethroid insecticide (tank mixed) may be applied to control plant bugs in cotton only between sunrise on May 15 through sunrise on September 15 of each year, subject to the following.

1.     Applications shall be made at no less than seven day intervals at an application rate not to exceed the individual pesticide product labels and with no other dilutions or tank mixes.

2.     Each application shall be reported, in writing and within 24 hours of the application, to the appropriate Boll Weevil Eradication Program district office by the farmer, agricultural consultant or owner/operator.

3.     The report shall include the names and addresses of the farmer, agricultural consultant (if appropriate), owner/operator and applicator; the applicator’s number issued by the department; the field name or number; the number of acres treated; the name and EPA registration number of the pesticide product; and the application date and time.

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact the LDAF, Sebe Brown or Dr. David Kerns for more information.

Bobby Simoneaux:  225-925-3763

Sebe Brown     Cell: 318-498-1283       Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns    Cell: 318-439-4844     Office: 318-435-2157

Kudzu Bug Adult

PEST ALERT: Kudzu Bugs Found in Vicksburg, Mississippi

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PEST ALERT:The Kudzu Bug (Bean Plataspid) has been found in Vicksburg, Mississippi. This is an invasive soybean pest that has not been detected in Louisiana. The Kudzu Bug can cause significant injury to soybeans and migration from Kudzu is common. If this insect is found, or for more information, please contact the LSU AgCenter. Below is contact information for LSU AgCenter entomologists and LDAF personnel.

Kudzu bugs on soybeans
Kudzu bugs on soybeans: Photo by J. Greene

Jeffrey A. Davis: LSU AgCenter Assistant Professor-Research Soybean Entomologist and Soybean IPM

Kudzu Bug Adult
Kudzu Bug Adult

Office: 225-578-5618   Cell: 225-747-0351  jeffdavis@agcenter.lsu.edu

David Kerns: LSU AgCenter Associate Professor- Macon Ridge

Office: 319-435-2157       Cell: 318-439-4844   dkerns@agcenter.lsu.edu

Julien Beuzelin: LSU AgCenter Assistant Professor-Field Crops Insect Ecology & Pest Managment

Office: 318-473-6523         Cell: 337-501-7087     jbeuzelin@agcenter.lsu.edu

Sebe Brown: LSU AgCenter Extension Entomologist Northeast Region

Cell: 318-498-1283  sbrown@agcenter.lsu.edu

Richard Miller: LDAF Administrative Coordinator Quarantine Programs  Office: 225-952-8053

Spider mite injury to cotton leaf

Spider Mite Control Options

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Dr. David Kerns and I have been receiving more phone calls regarding spider mites in cotton.  Mite problems are exacerbated by hot, dry weather and applications of broad-spectrum insecticides for early season pests.

Do not wait for spider mite treatments in cotton if populations are found scattered throughout the field or if mites are moving in from field borders. When making applications, correct nozzles and high water volumes are essential for adequate coverage and application rates should reflect mite severity.

Miticide application rates should be adjusted for population severity with higher rates used for more severe infestations. Some control options available for spider mite control include Oberon, Portal, Abamectin, Athena and Zeal. Below is a brief description of each product and recommended use.

Oberon, a slower acting miticide, may to take 5-7 days before mortality is observed in the field.

Spider mite injury to cotton leaf
Spider mite injury to cotton leaf: Photo by David Kerns

Portal has given satisfactory results when applied at 16-20 oz/acre, lower rates in large cotton may not give complete control. Portal is a contact miticide but one should still allow 5-7 days to assess effectiveness.

Abamectin has been widely used for mite control across the Northeast region with multiple applications required for control of severe infestations. However, producers and consultants should consider rotating chemistries on fields that have had numerous abamectin applications for resistance management and if efficacy has decreased.

If mixed populations of bollworms and mites are in a field, Athena a premix of bifenthrin and abamectin, is another available control option.  Ten ounces of Athena is equivalent to 3.8 ounces of bifenthrin 2E and 7.5 ounces of abamectin. For effective bollworm control, Athena should be supplemented with more bifenthrin and ½ lb of acephate should be added to increase efficacy on any tarnished plant bugs and pyrethroid tolerant worms.

Zeal is one of our most effective options for controlling spider mites in cotton. Because we are limited to 1 application of Zeal per season, we usually prefer to save our Zeal shot for more troublesome mite problems.

If you have any questions or concerns, do not hesitate to contact Sebe Brown or Dr. David Kerns for more information.

Sebe Brown     Cell: 318-498-1283       Office: 318-435-2903

Dr. David Kerns    Cell: 318-439-4844     Office: 318-435-2157