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Reapplying Lost Nitrogen to Corn After the Flood Waters Recede

Reapplying Lost Nitrogen to Corn After the Flood Waters Recede published on 1 Comment on Reapplying Lost Nitrogen to Corn After the Flood Waters Recede

By Dustin Harrell

Since writing the article yesterday that discussed estimating nitrogen (N) losses in corn following flooding events (http://louisianacrops.com/2016/03/18/corn-with-all-the-flooding-how-much-nitrogen-have-you-lost/), many new questions have been raised by producers. They are concerned that young corn will need to have the N replaced quickly after the flooding waters drain off fields in order to replace lost N and maximize the yield potential of the corn. This is a valid concern especially if little N is left in the soil after the floods recede or if N has not been applied at all and the corn is reaching the rapid vegetative growth stages. For example, a 200-bushel-per-acre corn crop will take up approximately 200 pounds of N during the growth and development of the crop. Seedling corn, prior to the V6 stage of development (6th leaf collar) will take up very little N, approximately 5% of its seasonal need. However, from V6 to VT (tasseling) corn will take up approximately 60% of its seasonal needs, or about 120 pounds of N for a 200-bushel corn crop. If that N is not available during that rapid growth period (approximately 30 days), then yield losses are certain to occur.

As the flood waters recede, many producers have questions about the best way to replenish the lost fertilizer N quickly to avoid yield losses. Most soils in north Louisiana are too wet to apply N with ground rigs, so that removes the Volatilization of urea on a dry and moist Crowley silt loam soilpotential to band or knife-in liquid N fertilizers. The only application method currently available to supply a large rate of N is to surface broadcast granular N fertilizer sources such as ammonium sulfate (21-0-0-24) and urea (46-0-0). Urea is less expensive than ammonium sulfate per pound of N; however, it also has the potential to volatilize. The volatility potential of ammonium sulfate is minimal. Volatilization is the conversion of ammonium (a solid) to
ammonia (a gas), which will be lost to the atmosphere. Trials evaluating urea volatility potential of N fertilizers have been conducted at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station over the past several years. Trials have shown that 30% or more of the N from urea surface broadcast on a dry soil can be lost by ammonia volatilization in a 10-day period of time. Of course, rates of volatilization can vary considerably across soil types. Typically, higher pH soils will have a greater N volatility potential as compared to acidic soil. Treating urea with a urease inhibitor with the active ingredient NBPT or NPPT will protect the urea from volatilization for a given amount of time, depending on soil properties and environmental conditions.  In the same studies mentioned above, urease inhibitors greatly reduced ammonia volatility for a 10-day period when applied onto a dry soil. Incorporation of urea into the soil by irrigation or rainfall will minimize volatilization losses. Therefore, if incorporating N into the soil by irrigation or rainfall soon after application is not a possibility, then a urease inhibitor is recommended.

Surface soil moisture will have a tremendous effect on the volatility potential of urea. Typically, urea applied on a dry soil will begin to slowly volatilize initially, but the rate of volatilization really takes off around three days after application. When urea is applied onto a soil that is saturated (without standing water), the rate of volatilization will begin much quicker, and the potential for volatilization losses over a given period of time will be much higher. Figure 1 above, which came from a volatilization trial conducted at the Rice Research Station in 2014, illustrates this phenomenon.

Addition of a urease inhibitor will help in reducing the amount of volatilization losses when urea is applied on a soil without standing water. However, the protection time is generally cut in half. Therefore, the 10-day protection time may only be five days if applied on a moist soil. If the urease inhibitor treated urea is dropped into standing water, the NBPT will not give you any protection.

With all that said, if the soil is too wet for ground equipment and your corn needs N as soon as possible, then you must choose between applying granular ammonium sulfate and urea by air. If urea is your fertilizer of choice, then it is best to wait to apply the N (from an N-efficiency standpoint) when the surface of the soil becomes dry. Applications of urea treated with a urease inhibitor will enable applications onto a soil with a wet soil surface without significant N losses for a few days. Expect large losses of N from urea if it is not treated with a urease inhibitor and it is applied onto a soil with a moist soil surface. Expect even greater losses of N from urea if it is applied into standing water.

Corn: With all the flooding, how much nitrogen have you lost?

Corn: With all the flooding, how much nitrogen have you lost? published on 1 Comment on Corn: With all the flooding, how much nitrogen have you lost?

The rainfall events that occurred last week have caused tremendous damage to northeast Louisiana farm land due to flooding. In addition to the water received from the rainfall events, some farms were inundated with even more water as nearby bayous and rivers overflowed a few days later. Many of the hardest hit farming operations are still trying to save equipment, livestock, and assets from the rising flood waters. Some farming operations situated on higher ground, such as the Macon Ridge, may have been spared from the flooding but were still affected from the excessive rainfall nonetheless. One of the most commonly asked questions I have been receiving lately is: How much of my nitrogen (N) fertilizer have I lost in my corn crop? Unfortunately, the question is not that straight forward to answer. You really have to consider several factors. What N source did you use? Was it surface broadcast, was it incorporated in after application, was it banded in the soil (knifed-in), or was it dribbled on the soil surface? What was the soil moisture like at the time of application? How long after the fertilizer application did the flooding conditions occur? Was a urease or nitrification inhibitor used? Just to name a few.

Corn seedlings under high moisture conditions
Corn seedlings under high moisture conditions

Let’s begin by considering the N fertilizer source. First, we need to remember that nitrate-N is not stable under flooded, anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions and that it will be converted to a gas and lost very quickly by a process called denitrification. Ammonium-N, on the other hand, is stable under flooded, anaerobic conditions and will not be lost.  Many farmers in northeast Louisiana use granular urea (46-0-0) or liquid UAN (urea ammonium nitrate; 32-0-0) as their N fertilizer source. The granular urea will be converted into the ammonium form after application through a process called hydrolysis. Therefore, if the flooding occurred quickly after urea application, most of the N will not be lost because it will be in the urea or ammonium form and will remain stable under flooded conditions. UAN on the other hand is made up of both urea and ammonium nitrate. The nitrate portion of UAN is approximately 25% while urea and ammonium-N make up the other 75%.  Therefore, we would expect 25% of the N that is in the nitrate form to be lost very quickly after flooding.

Now let’s consider the amount of time that the fertilizer N was applied prior to flooding. Ammonium can be converted to nitrate under aerobic (oxygen present) conditions by a process called nitrification. The longer ammonium fertilizer was applied prior to flooding, the more of the ammonium will be converted to nitrate through a process called nitrification. The rate of nitrification depends on several factors including soil type, presence of nitrifying bacteria, and the temperature of the soil. Research has shown a wide range of nitrification rates based on the aforementioned soil properties, so for our purposes let’s assume that the average nitrification rate under cooler soil temperatures (<65oF) would be about 2.5% per day and under warmer soil temperatures the average rate would be at least 4.5% per day.

Another thing we have to consider is whether or not a urease inhibitor or a nitrification inhibitor was applied on the granular fertilizer or mixed in with the liquid N fertilizer. A urease inhibitor (active ingredient NBPT or NPPT) will temporarily delay the conversion of urea to ammonium form (urea hydrolysis) and will therefore temporarily delay volatilization losses (conversion of ammonium-N to ammonia, a gas) and subsequent nitrification reactions (conversion of ammonium to nitrate).  Nitrification inhibitors (active ingredients nitrapyrin or DCD) will temporarily delay only the nitrification process.  Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors will not last forever. Research at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station has shown that urease inhibitors will typically give you protection for approximately 10 days when applied on a dry soil, approximately five days when applied on a moist soil, and will provide no protection when applied into standing water. Recent research out of northeast Louisiana indicated that nitrification inhibitors can give you protection 10-30 days, depending on the environmental and soil factors involved.

Using the N source, nitrification rate, and the addition of a urease or nitrification inhibitor, we can begin to estimate how much N will be lost under various scenarios.

Scenario 1. A corn farmer on the Macon Ridge knifed-in UAN at a rate of 200 pounds of N just after planting. The UAN was not treated with a urease or nitrification inhibitor. Saturated soil conditions occurred 12 days after planting and lasted for 2 days. The soil temperature was <65oF.  How much N was lost?

Well, we know right away that 25% of the UAN is in the nitrate form and will be lost under saturated, anaerobic conditions. We also know that we have had 12 days for nitrification (conversion of ammonium to nitrate) to occur in a cool soil and that a nitrification or urease inhibitor was not used, so the nitrification rate will be about 2.5% per day.

Therefore, the N loses from denitrification = (0.25 * 200 lb N/A) + (12 days * 0.025 * 200 lb N/A) = 80 pounds of N per acre lost.

Scenario 2: Granular urea (46-0-0) was treated with a urease inhibitor and was applied on moist ground 3 days after planting at a rate of 50 pounds N per acre. A one-half inch rain occurred 2-days later that incorporated the urea into the soil, minimizing volatilization (ammonia gas) losses from the urea.  Flooding conditions occurred 15 days later and the field stayed under water for four days. The soil temperature was <65oF. How much N was lost?

This time all of the N is in the urea form to begin with and was protected from volatilization losses prior to the small incorporating rain.  However, the urease inhibitor probably only kept the fertilizer in the urea form for approximately 5 days before it was converted into the ammonium form.  Nitrification (conversion of ammonium to nitrate) could then occur for about 10 days.

Therefore, the loss of N from denitrification = 10 days * 0.025 * 50 lb N/A = 12.5 pounds of N per acre lost. In addition, I would expect that the corn would not be able to survive this situation and would have to be replanted.

Remember, these N loss estimates are not perfect. There are a lot of factors involved in estimating N loses that were not covered and it could be argued that the rates of nitrification or the time that a urease or nitrification inhibitor could differ depending on the research you use as your source. However, it is a good starting point and should help growers in northeast Louisiana determine how much N will be available in the soil once saturated soils dry and flood waters recede.

Late-season weather affecting corn crop

Late-season weather affecting corn crop published on No Comments on Late-season weather affecting corn crop

by:

Josh Lofton and Dan Fromme, LSU AgCenter

 


 

Over the past several days Louisiana has experienced some severe weather across the state. Most notable was the severe weather of August 11. Damage from this storm has been felt from northern Louisiana through the rice-growing areas of southern Louisiana. While reports of hail have been sporadic, damage from wind and heavy rains have been the primary concern. Unfortunately, with the rains that have been experienced across the region in the past several weeks, little of the corn crop has been harvested. This means that a large portion of the state’s crop was at risk for this damage. Driving across the state, many fields have been spared damage; however, others have not. Damage includes lodging of the tops of the plants to complete stalk lodging. At this stage in the corn growth cycle, anything short of complete stalk lodging should be of minimal concern, and there should be little effect on final yields. However, greater concern may be warranted for those with more intense lodging.

The next couple of days will determine how damaging complete stalk lodging will be. At this stage, corn lodging will not correct itself as it will at earlier vegetative stages. However, with most modern day harvesting equipment, producers will be able to capture most of what is currently on the ground.  Where the problem arises is with the rain associated with the windy conditions. Lodged corn lying in standing water will begin to be an issue as time progresses. Not only will this corn not dry like the rest of the crop, seed sprout will start to develop. This sprouted seed will maintain relatively high moisture, and dockage will be incurred if high rates of sprouted seed develop. Therefore, it will begin to be essential that these spots dry in the coming days.

While it seems the extent of this damage will be minimal across the state, yield losses on affected fields will be more substantial. Conditions will not be fully known for the next several days.

 

For further questions or comments, contact:

Dan Fromme, Corn and Cotton Extension Specialist, dfromme@agcenter.lsu.edu

Josh Lofton, Research Agronomist, jlofton@agcenter.lsu.edu

Damage to corn with severe weather

Damage to corn with severe weather published on 1 Comment on Damage to corn with severe weather

Josh Lofton, Field Crop Agronomist, Macon Ridge Research Station

Beatrix Haggard, Soil Specialist, Northeast Region

Dan Fromme, Corn and Cotton Specialist, Dean Lee Research Station

 

As the weather around the state is finally transitioning from spring to summer conditions, the corn crop has seen abundant growth in the past several weeks. With these increasing temperatures, it can also be expected that the number and severity of thunderstorms will continue to increase. Two major concerns with these increased thunderstorms for the corn crop are wind and hail damage. With the current corn crop beginning to reach critical growth and developmental stages, it is often wondered how much yield loss can be associated with these potential injuries. While the answer to this question seems somewhat straightforward, there are many factors that determine how detrimental the injury will be and how much yield loss can be expected.

Wind damage

When looking from a turn-row at a field that has been dam
aged by wind itmay appear that all wind damage is similar; however, this is far from the truth. Root lodging appears as the entire stalk has been blown over at the ground level with the roots appearing to be dislodged from the soil surface.  This occurs when soil from heavy rainfall events becomes saturated and the roots can no longer support the corn stalk. While this may appear to be very detrimental to the corn crop, oftentimes, given good growing conditions following the event, the crop will reroot and the crop will continue to grow upward. In later growth stages, these stalks can be identified with having a more “goose necked” appearance. While the damage this lodging will have on yields will not be understood until harvest, root-lodged corn often looks worse immediately following the lodging event than the related yield damage; this is especially true prior to reproductive growth.

lodge1

Snapped corn is a more severe effect of wind damage (often referredto a “green snap”). This effect can be seen after the emergence of the growth point from the soil surface. However, it is more common during late-vegetative or early-reproductive growth when high biomass is paired with high winds. Unlike root lodging, it is unlikely a plant that has experienced green snap will recover from the injury. However, the overall effect on field scale yield will vary based on how widespread the damage is and what stage the crop was when damage occurred. Studies from Iowa State University indicated that when green snap occurs early in the season, prior to V8, yield losses expected should be less than 15 percent. This is due to the ability of many of our modern corn hybrids with flex to adjust seed set. Prior to V8 stage, both ear size and kernel set, which occur from V8 through V14, have often not been fully determined. Therefore, with decreased surrounding competition, these plants have the potential to produce larger ears to compensate for the losses. However, when snapped corn occurs during late-vegetative or early-reproductive stages, both the severity and the yield impact are often higher with as much as 50 percent yield loss expected in severely damaged corn.lodge3

Hail damage

Hail, in addition to tremendous rain potential and damaging winds, can also be a damaging aspect. Hail damage can be very disheartening since the visual damage is often worse than it really is. With this being said, it is best to not attempt to evaluate a hail-damaged field the day of or the day following the event. Corn has an amazing ability to recover from damage, especially during early-season growth. Evaluation of these fields should be delayed until favorable growing conditions with adequate moisture have returned. This will allow the manager to determine which plants have recommenced growth and which have not. After these conditions have returned, managers can cut down the center of the stalk and look at the growing point. When determining the yield reduction of hail damage, two aspects should be considered: 1) stand loss and 2) reduction in photosynthetic leaf area. During early-season growth, if the growing point is firm and white, these plants are likely to survive; however, if the growing point has lost firmness or has turned brown or light grey, severe damage has occurred and the plant is not likely to survive.

 

The primary loss of yield due to hail damage comes from loss of leaf area. However, determining leaf area damage can often be challenging. Two critical aspects in determining how this reduction in leaf area can influence yield are: 1) percent defoliation and 2) growth stage in which the damage occurred.  Determining the percent defoliation is probably the most challenging aspect. Often, even minimal to slight defoliation can appear to be severe defoliation. Evaluate damaged leaves compared to undamaged leaves to try to minimize the bias nature of this estimate. Once percent defoliation is determined, growth stage at which the event occurred will be needed. Often, following a hail event, growers and managers will scout the field the day of the event or the day following and growth stage should be evident. However, if time occurs between the hail event and scouting, in general, corn leaf emergence occurs at 1 leaf per 80 GDD prior to V10 and one leaf per 50 GDD after. Once these two aspects are determined, Table 1 can be used to assess potential yield reductions due to loss of photosynthetic tissue.

 

Table 1. Estimation of percent grain yield loss associated with leaf area defoliation. (Adapted from National Corn Handbook, Climate and Weather, Vorst 1993).defoliation1

Damage from severe storms can be a very disheartening time. Luckily, the damage is rarely widespread, and therefore field- and farm-scale yield losses will be minimal. Currently, there have only been scattered reports of either hail or wind damage during the 2014 season, but we can expect storms to continue throughout the year.

 

 

For further questions regarding damage throughout the season, feel free to contact:

Dan Fromme, Corn and Cotton Specialist, 318-427-4424

Josh Lofton, Field Crop Agronomist, 318-498-1934

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